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The teaching material has an internal methodological structure that transitions "from simple to complex". Later chapters apply the basic knowledge and concepts that are covered in the preceding chapters. In total the material covers around 2-3 years of basic lessons. Depending on the grade of the class and the number of lessons available, only selected parts of the material can be taught, and missing terms and concepts have to made up. Since turtle graphics are a great way to be introduced to the material, most basics are taught in this chapter.

Based on our teaching experience, we suggest the following minimal program variants.

1. Turtle graphics and student projects (as an introduction to computer science in secondary education S1 and S2, 1-2 hours per week for a year)

2. Selected topics in turtle graphics and the chapter on robotics (as an introduction to computer science or for computer science workshops, if Lego EV3 or NXT-robots are available, at least 10-20 lessons)

3. Selected topics in turtle graphics and game programming (1-2 hours per week for a year at higher schools)

4. Selected topics in turtle graphics, coordinate graphics and applications in school subjects (as an introduction to computer science with interdisciplinary applications, 1-2 lessons per week for a year)

5. The first topics of turtle graphics (as an introduction to programming in ICT courses, 4-10 lessons)

We decided to use English identifiers and comments in the programs. This not only helps to facilitate the translation into other languages, but also corresponds with the trend towards the internationalization of program code.

As an aid for teachers there is a keyword list including important concepts in computer science for each topic.


Solutions to the exercises:

If you are working at an educational institution you can get the solutions of the exercises by writing an e-mail to The request must include the following verifiable information: name, address, educational institute, and e-mail address. By requesting the solutions, you agree that you will use them strictly for personal use and that you will not pass them on to anyone else.



This work is not copyrighted and may be reproduced freely for personal use and for use in a classroom. For non-commercial purposes, texts and programs may be used without reference to their source.


To the extent possible under law, TJGroup has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to TigerJython.